EXPLORING THE WORD
God in the Old Testament
By Denise Baum
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Consider this statement. "How does one reconcile the loving God of the Old Testament with the harsh God of the New Testament (God Behaving Badly, p.9)?" Wait a minute, I thought as I read this statement, I can't believe the editors didn't catch this blaring mistake! But this is indeed the introduction to David T. Lamb's book, God Behaving Badly: Is the God of the Old Testament Angry, Sexist and Racist?. The author goes on to remind us "that God in the Old Testament is consistently described as slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, but Jesus speaks about hell more than anyone else in Scripture (ibid. p.9)." I seriously recommend this book to anyone who is seeking to understand the God of the Old Testament.
Many have been troubled by the apparent harshness of God in the law. Perhaps, as we struggle to understand the complexities of the Old Testament, we should first commit to a foundational truth. God is completely righteous (Psalm 11:7). At the same time, mankind is completely incapable of righteousness (Psalm 14:1-3). When we have established an unshakeable belief in God's perfection, we can start trying to comprehend his ways in Biblical history. Dr. Lamb states, that:
the most compelling factor drawing me toward studying the Old Testament was God himself. The God of the Old Testament was fascinating to me. He became really angry, but was also extraordinarily patient. He seemed to view women and wives as property, but he also selected women as spiritual and political leaders over the nation of Israel. He commanded Israel to vanquish the Canaanites, but also to care for the poor, the widows, the orphans and the foreigners. God in the Old Testament was complex. There was so much about God in the Old Testament that I didn't understand. I thought I could study the Old Testament for the rest of my life and never feel bored. God Behaving Badly, page 10As we approach Old Testament law and history, we should have a humble, seeking, and reverent attitude.
Let's talk through some specific points.
The apparent cruelty to slaves. Earlier in Exodus 21, we see how just God is. A Hebrew slave went free in the 7th year of his slavery (Exodus 21:2), even if his debts are not paid in full. Slavery was a fact of life. Poverty drove the poor to sell themselves. And remember, we have no idea why a slave would deserve beating. Perhaps the slaveholder was a violent man; if so, we can be sure that he will have been repaid for his crime (Romans 12:19). Perhaps the slave actually deserved death for justifiable reasons, (Old Testament law dealt sternly with lawbreakers — there is a whole string of such death-deserving sins in Exodus 21), and received the lesser punishment of being beaten. Other Scriptures are so firm in their support and instruction of those who are oppressed, that to doubt the mercy of God in this one law is unwise (see Psalm 71:4; Proverbs 11:17; Proverbs 12:10; Zephaniah 3:5; 1 Peter 2:18-25).
Concerning the sale of daughters. One very important habit we all should cultivate as we study the Scriptures is this: never trust yourself to grasp the meaning of something the first time around. Make a habit of reviewing a troublesome portion of Scripture until understanding comes. The verses on daughters being sold seems to be in the same chapter as the slave beating. "When a man sells his daughter as a slave, she shall not go out as the male slaves do" (Exodus 21:7). Get a hold of a Bible with a center or side column reference. The best commentary and explanation of Scripture is Scripture itself. Case in point:
Nehemiah provides the sad picture of the impoverished father who is forced to sell his children to pay his debts. "Now our flesh is as the flesh of our brothers, our children are as their children. Yet we are forcing our sons and our daughters to be slaves, and some of our daughters have already been enslaved, but it is not in our power to help it, for other men have our fields and our vineyards. Nehemiah 5:5In Biblical history, there were no government programs that provided for the poor. If they had no property, equity, or saleable possessions, they were forced to place their families as collateral. Labor was the only exchange for unpaid debts. In this law, we can expect to see, behind the sad daughter, a heartbroken father. Esther was not enslaved for debt but the picture is similar. Her beauty earned her a place in the king's harem and her guardian, Mordecai was helpless to protect her. As with many kings in history, Artaxerxes' word was law, his every desire catered to. But Mordecai did not abandon Esther. "And every day Mordecai walked in front of the court of the harem to learn how Esther was and what was happening to her" (Esther 2:11).
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